Uburyo isi yataye intego ya 2030 yo guca burundu kwangiza amashyamba – bbc.com

Ahavuye isanamu, Getty Images
Gutema no gutwika amashyamba byariyongereye ku isi ndetse byarenze umurongo w'icyerekezo abategetsi bari biyemeje
Amashyamba yo ku mirongo mbariro y’isi (tropical forests) ari ku buso bungana n’Ubusuwisi yaratikiye mu mwaka ushize gusa kuko kuyangiza byiyongereye, nk’uko ubushakashatsi bushya bubivuga.
Ibi bisobanuye ko ibyo abategetsi b’isi bemeye mu nama ya COP26 ko bazaca kwangiza amashyamba mu 2030 bitakiri mu nzira ikwiriye.
Mu 2022 muri Brazil honyine, aho ibi bikorwa bikabije, ibiti biri ku buso bungana n’ibibuga 11 by’umupira w’amaguru bitemwa buri munota.
Gusa muri Indonesia habonetse kugabanya gukomeye iyangizwa ry’amashyamba ku buryo bitanga icyizere ko ibi bishoboka.
Kimwe mu bintu byaranze inama ya COP26 mu 2021 i Glasgow ni aho abategetsi b’isi barenga 100 biyemeje gufatanya “guhagarika kwangiza amashyamba no kwangiza ubutaka bitarenze 2030”.
Abategetsi bo mu bihugu birimo 85% by’amashyamba ari ku isi bemeje aya masezerano. Aho harimo na Brazil yategekwaga na perezida Jair Bolsonaro, wari waroroheje amategeko arengera ibidukikije kugira ngo hakorwe imishinga y’iterambere mu ishyamba rya Amazon.
Amasezerano ya Glasgow yumvikanyweho nyuma y’andi yasinywe mu 2014 nayo yananiwe kugabanya iyangizwa ry’amashyamba ku isi.
Ikiganiro cy’abagore kuri BBC Gahuzamiryango
Inkurikirane
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Ubu isesengura rishya ryakozwe na Global Forest Watch rirerekana ko ibi abategetsi bemeye i Glasgow batarimo kubikurikiza.
Gutakaza amashyamba y’inzitane yo mu gice cy’imirongo mbariro y’isi bizwi ko bishyira mu kaga gakomeye ko kwiyongera kw'ubushyuhe bw’isi bikanahungabanya ibidukikije.
Amashyamba y’inzitane yo muri Brazil, Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo na Indonesia ubwayo atangira imyuka myinshi cyane yangiza ikirere irekurwa ku isi.
Gutema cyangwa gutwika aya mashyamba amaze imyaka myinshi bituma iyo myuka ya carbon izamuka mu kirere, bigatera ubushyuhe ahatandukanye ku isi.
Aya mashyamba kandi ni ingenzi mu kubungabunga urunyurane rw’ibinyabuzima n’imibereho ya za miliyoni z’abantu.
Abahanga muri siyanse baburira ko “serivisi” aya mashyamba atanga idashobora gusimburwa no gutera ibiti ahandi hantu, kuko aya mashyamba aba yarakuze mu gihe kirekire.
Amakuru mashya yakusanyijwe na University of Maryland yo muri Amerika, yerekana ko mu 2022 hangiritse 10% by’amashyamba kurusha uko byari bimeze mu 2021, aho hejuru gato ya hegitari miliyoni enye zatemwe cyangwa zigatwikwa.
Ibi birekura umwuka carbon dioxide ungana n’umwuka w’ibikomoka kuri petrol Ubuhinde bwonyine bwohereza mu kirere ku mwaka.
Ahavuye isanamu, EVARISTO SA
Perezida Lula na minisitiri we w'ibidukikje basezeranyije ko bazaca kwangiza amashyamba muri Brazil
Rod Taylor wo mu kigo World Resources Institute (WRI) kiyobora Global Forest Watch ati: “Ikibazo ni; turi mu murongo wo guhagarika iyangirika ry’amashyamba mu 2030? Igisubizo kigufi ni oya.
“Nk’isi, turi kure cyane y’inzira, kandi turagana mu cyerekezo kibi. Isesengura ryacu ryerekanye ko kwangiza amashyamba ku isi mu 2022 birenzeho hegitari miliyoni imwe ku ntego ikenewe ngo tube turi ku murongo w’icyerekezo cya 2030.”
Brazil ni yo iza imbere mu gutema no gutwika amashyamba y’inzitane kandi ibyo mu 2022 byiyongereyeho 14%.
Muri leta ya Amazone ya Brazil, ahari kimwe cya kabiri cy’amashyamba yose atarakorwaho muri icyo gihugu, igipimo cyo gutema amashyamba cyikubye hafi kabiri mu myaka itatu ishize.
Bolivia, kimwe mu bihugu bicye bitasinye amasezerano ya Glasgow, nacyo gutema amashyamba mu 2022 byiyongereyeho kimwe cya gatatu muri uwo mwaka gusa.
Kwiyongera mu gutema amashyamba y’inzitane byabonetse kandi muri DR Congo, igihugu gifite amashyamba menshi nk’aya.
Nubwo Ghana, mu burengerazuba bwa Africa, ifite igice gito cy’amashyamba nk’aya, kuyangiza mu 2022 byiyongereyeho 71%, kandi akenshi mu bice ubundi birinzwe. Henshi mu hatemwe hegereye imirima ya cocoa.
Ubuhinzi ni yo mpamvu ya mbere itangwa, nk’uko abashakashatsi babivuga.
Mu gihe perezida mushya wa Brazil yiyemeje gukomeza amasezerano y’i Glasgow yo guca kwangiza amashyamba bitarenze 2030, hari icyizere gishya ko ariya masezerano azazahuka mu myaka iri imbere.
Gusa niba isi ikeneye kugumisha ubushyuhe bwayo ku gipimo cy’ingenzi cyo munsi ya 1.5C, igihe cyo kugira igikorwa ku mashyamba ni gito cyane, nk’uko abashakashatsi babivuga.
Rod Taylor wo muri WRI ati: “Birihutirwa cyane kugabanya iyangizwa ry’amashyamba, ndetse birihutirwa kurusha kugabanya imyuka ya carbon yoherezwa mu kirere.
"Kubera ko iyo utakaje amashyamba nk'aya, birakomeye cyane kuyasubiranya. Ni ubwoko bw’ibintu by’ingenzi udasubiranya."
Ahavuye isanamu, SULTAN IQBAL ABIYYU
Indonesia yashyizeho uburyo bwo gucunga imiriro no kubuza ubuhinzi bushya bw'ingazi
Bikurikiranwa mu buryo bworoshye basesengura amashusho y’ibyogajuru – nubwo rimwe na rimwe haba hari ugushidikanya neza neza ku mwaka ibiti bimwe byatakarijwe.
Gupima iyangizwa ry’amashyamba – aha bivuze irikorwa n’abantu – biragoye kurushaho kuko ahatemwe ibiti hose ntihabarwa nko kwangiza amashyamba.
Urugero, gushya kw’ishyamba ridatwitswe ku bushake bwa muntu, gutakaza ishyamba kubera ibyorezo cyangwa inkubi z’imiyaga, ntabwo ubundi bibarwa nko kwangiza amashyamba.
Hari ingorane mu kumenya – urugero – icyateye imiriro imwe n’imwe yangiza amashyamba, niba ari iyakongejwe n’abantu babigambiriye cyangwa ari imiriro yadutse ubwayo.
Abahanga muri siyanse bagerageza kwita kuri ibi byose kugira ngo bagere ku bipimo nk’ibi batangaje byo kwangirika kw’amashyamba.
Imibare iheruka ivuga ko kwangiza amashyamba (bikozwe na muntu) byazamutseho 3.6% mu 2022 ugereranyije na 2021 – ikinyuranyo cy’ibyiyemejwe i Glasgow.
Igitangaje muri uku gutakaza amashyamba, ni uko gutakaza ayo mu bice by’imirongo mbariro y’isi – ah’ingenzi kurusha ahandi mu kurengera isi –byazamutseho 10% mu 2022.
© 2023 BBC. BBC ntibazwa ibivuye ku zindi mbuga. Soma ibijanye n'aho duhagaze ku mihora ijana ahandi

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